Cutting the Burmese Gordian knot (公元1947年2月12日,緬甸本部過渡政府代表翁山將軍,於撣邦彬龍小鎮上,與撣、克欽、欽及各族代表一同簽署彬龍協議。) On Feb 12,1947, General Aung San and the Anti-Fascist & People’s Freedom League represented the Burma Proper and signed the Panglong Agreement in Shan State with leaders of Shan,Kachin,Chin ethnic nationalities. Cutting the Burmese Gordian knot _ By Prof. Kanbawza Win The Union of Burma, founded in 1948 mainly through the effort of Bogyoke Aung San,[1] was beset by trouble since its inception. The end result was that there was a military coup in 1962 and the subsequent military backed regime continues to grip on to power up to this day, under different pretext than that of 1962. In the contention between two schools of thought, the one headed by the democrat, wants the real Union of Burma by consensus and the other led by the Burman (Myanmar) chauvinist, wanted to rough ride shod over the ethnic nationalities with the intentions of creating one race (Burman/Myan 好房網mar), one language (Burmese/Myanmanese) and one religion Buddhism.[2] This rationale became one of the reasons of changing the country name from Burma to Myanmar. This group became predominant because it controls the armed forces and rules not by consensus but by armed might and became the source of all the troubles. Majority rule by democracy, hitherto led by Boyoke Aung San, suffered greatly from his premature death. Only after several decades was his young daughter able to take up the torch. As the world already knows, she was supported by the mass of the people and by the international community,[3] but the generals would not relent. Up to this moment their guns take precedence over reason. No matter what Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and the NLD have tried to negotiate, Burma’s top brass remain unyielding and true to their misdirected convictions, they continue to carryout their policy of ethnic cleansing. Nobody on earth ever trusted the Burmese 婚禮顧問 Junta because unlike other governments it lie the very concept of truth, and is an enemy of truth. People who have tried to negotiate with them has witness so many Munich of the Nazi Hitler days, there seem to have no choice for negotiations unless one speaks from the position of strength. But how is this possible, How can we speak from the position of strength with Daw Suu was under house arrest and NLD could not move, peripherals force marginalized and the Burmese in Diaspora are hopelessly divided? “The flesh is weak but the spirit is willing.” The one common factor (hope) which the people of Burma harbour is the downfall of this evil military Junta. Somehow this spirit alone will carry the day, provided one could harness it properly. But then the question is how to harness? Looking at the ethnic nationalities forces, the majority except a few ultra racist organizations wanted some sort of Federal Union and the Burmese army is adamant about this Federal Uni 燒烤on simply because it does not want to share its power. Again if we were to look at the pro democracy movement there are still a few who harbour the “Maha Bama” [4] attitude but the majority of the Burman who have a good rationale, especially those who have fought shoulder to shoulder with the ethnic armies, sympathise with the ethnic causes. Hence there is every possibility that the Ethnic Nationalities throwing their lot with the pro democracy movement as people began to see the struggle between the persecutor and the persecuted. This sort of understanding is very crucial in laying down the Union spirit. Through cunning and the treachery, the successive Burmese Generals were able to trick the entire people of Burma into believing that Federalism is an evil word anathema to the Burmese people. They claim, that it would destroy the Union and cajoling with sweet words, the Junta argue that full fledge Democracy is not yet an opportune moment and that the armed forces alone is t 保濕面膜he only institution that can keep the country together. With this rationale it was able to maintain its power. Viewing the international scene, we also realize that the only superpower that can help us with force is the United States of America. Due to the disastrous policy of President Bush of taking unilateral actions in Iraq and also in some aspect in Afghanistan, it is very clear both to the international community, and the people of Burma that the American Administration has learnt its bitter lessons and would not act unilaterally again in any part of the globe, including Burma. Besides unlike Iraq there is no oil in Burma. Faced with the impending New Cold War (Russo-Sino-Indo Vs USA) America is still all the more anxious to reinstate itself as the arsenal of Democracy and upheld the moral (integrity) character of the world. Clearly the United States wants to see the success of its foreign policy. Hence to get a consensus on Burma, with the backing of the US, the United Nations became ve 酒店工作ry crucial to solving the Burmese malaise. The people of Burma also realise, that the U S would not act without the mandate from the UN. The number of times the UN has approached the Burmese Generals is well known through its various special representatives, Human Rights Commissions, UNGA etc including the Security Council. But to this day it was of no avail. Even though the Burmese case was vetoed at the Security Council, the speeches of the Russian and the Chinese ambassadors revealed that something is awfully wrong in Burma and that the people of Burma needs the international help to prevent further worsening this on going tragedy.[5] Hence, the decision of the UNSC becomes very crucial to the just struggle of the people of Burma. Whether the Burmese case will come to the UNSC again is still yet to be seen. Regardless of this, it is clear that the content of the speeches by these big powers is crucial and represents support of the just struggle of the people of Burma. Say supposing somehow or other we m 房地產anage to get a consensus at the United Nations, this became the first crucial step in putting some iron on the velvet glove of negotiating with the Junta. The ethno-democratic forces have no desire to see the Americans to shed a drop of blood for the Burmese cause. Nor do they expect the UN to do the dirty job of forcing the Junta out. What they want is just a promise from the UN that the resources will be funnel to the united ethno democratic forces. Once the American resources, if not the international resources under the banner of the UN flows into the United ethno democratic forces, then there is the beginning of the hope for serious talk with the Junta. Their profound disrespect for other nations cannot be hidden under the thin veil of nods toward reconciliation. Their own actions prove that they only have regard and respect for power backed by threat of force. In Burma, genuine reconciliation has a chance only when backed by such power. Clearly, it is up to the ethno-democratic forces both inside and outside of Burma to 裝潢become such a power. If a genuine negotiated reconciliation in Burma is to occur, the ethno democratic forces both inside and outside of Burma must band together, creating the Union of Burma army or rather Pyidaungsu Tat under the patronage of some sincere Burmese intelligentsia. They will have to select its own commanders under the single command and prepared for negotiations with the Junta. Only then, they can demonstrate the depth of their sincerity. When the ethno- democratic community has forces equal in strength to that of the Burmese army, will their attempts to negotiate be respected. What the majority of the people of Burma seek from the world community is not direct armed intervention on their behalf. What they seek is the support of the much needed resources from the United States, from the United Nations, and from the world community, to develop a genuine opportunity for lasting peace and reconciliation. With the flow of these resources, they can begin serious talks with the Junta. Only then will the Junta, especially Thann 澎湖民宿Shwe will come around. Through such a commitment, the United Nations positions itself to have its concerns respected and taken seriously. In addition, if the US supports the UN, it will greatly enhance its international policy in its efforts to create a better world. Ensuing negotiations to solve the Burmese problem once and for all must lead to a federal union of secular states, because the crux of the Burmese problem lies in solving the problems of ethnic nationality. In 1962, the military came to power in the first place because the democratically elected civilian government failed to find an effective solution to this problem. Why the army did came into power in 1962? Because the democratically elected civilian government cannot solve the ethnic nationality problem, hence the struggle for democracy has to be followed. Taking in these lessons of the past half a century, future leaders of Burma must organize the kind of federal union that can take its rightful place in the civilized international community. Footnotes [1] After the Second World War 膠原蛋白, in March 1946, the leaders of the Federated Shan States – Shan, Da-nu, Pa-O, Palaung and WA - met together with representatives of the Chin, Kachin, and Karen peoples in Panglong to discuss the future. To enable the different peoples to cooperate more closely, the Supreme Council of the United Hill Peoples (SCOUHP) was founded in November 1946, where for the first time they set down to work together for a common goal. When the ethnic nationalities leaders met again for the second time in Panglong on February 12th 1947, Bogyoke Aung San came to join them. He had been to London to negotiate with Prime Minister Atlee for Burma’s independence, which was conditional on the unification of the Frontier Areas with Burma. Based on Aung San’s promises of democracy, equality and self rule, the ethnic nationalities agreed to work together with Aung San’s interim government to form the Union of Burma: At the 2nd. Panglong Conference some ethnic leaders, who attended the conference agree to take independence from Britain together with the Burmese and is now better known as Union Day 婚禮顧問  .
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